The Earth's rotation causes something called Coriolis Force. The deflection of an object due to this inertial force causes the Coralis Effect.

The Coriolis Effect is the reason the major currents in the Northern Hemisphere move in a clockwise manner and a counterclockwise manner in the Southern Hemisphere. 

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General Rules for the PADI RDP can be found under Table 3. It states that you must plan as if diving 4 metres deeper than actual depth.

This is a logical step to counteract the increasing amount of Nitrogen entering the body due to a higher breathing volume.

An example would be diving to the NDL at 18 mteres would mean a dive of 56 minutes. If planned 4 metres deeper than actual depth, 22 metres, the NDL is decreased to 37 minutes to indicate the increased amount of inert gas calculated to be in the diver's tissues. 

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Suspended particles in the water, called turbidity, may be there from several sources such as runoff, silt etc. 

This turbidity causes the scattering of light which may cause the phenomenon of visual reversal where the object may appear more distance than they actually are.

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All gases want to reach a stable state of equilibrium. If a component is added to disrupt this, such as a higher concentration of oxygen, the gases will react to reach equilibrium once more on the side of the reactant and the concentration will decrease until equilibrium is found again in favour of the oxygen.

This accelerates the off-gassing of the inert gas; nitrogen and may be used as first aid in cases of DCS and as a way to safely accelerate decompression in trained Technical Divers. 

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The linking Curses heading located in the Paperwork and Administrative Procedures of your PADI Instructor Manual covers this.

A PADI Specialty Instructor certified to teach specific courses, such as Altitude Diver and Dry Suit Diver are able to integrate the knowledge development and performance requirements with the PADI Open Water Diver Course and run the two programs concurrently.

There is a limit placed on the conduct of these programs to avoid task loading the students and that is that only one PADI Specialty Diver Course from the list contained in the Linking Course section, when may be taught by PADI Specialty Instructor for the program, may be conducted concurrently with the PADI Open Water Diver Course.

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