Markings can vary for place to place and should not be ignored if they seem unfamiliar. The S80 on the side of a cylinder indicates the internal capacity of the tank - 80 Cubic Feet/11. litres

This is important to know when planning dives as the gas available will be the pressure multiplied by the volume; for example - 200 bar x 11.1 litres means 2,220 litres of gas available for the diver at the beginning of the dive.

Take your PADI Divemaster training with Master Divers, Koh Tao. Thailand, and enjoy a day with our equipment technicians getting to know your way around equipment care and maintenance, including cylinder care.

In response to the need of a dive planner that met the needs of recreational divers Dr Raymond Rogers and his team tested and developed the PADI Recreational Dive Planner using a modal that consisted of more tissue compartments than the military style tables, it was designed to replace.

This lead to longer No Deco Limits, shorter surface intervals and longer adjusted NDL's.

Want to learn more about dive planning? Join my next PADI Instructor Development Course. Book Now.

We need to change the percentage to a decimal for the answer here. This means 2%CO will become 0.02ppCO at the surface.

Ambient pressure at 22m/sw is 3.2ATA. If we multiply our ppCO by the ATA we will get our answer. 

Join my next {ADI IDC to learn more. Book Now and Ignite Your Life today!

The Valsalva Manoeuvre it used for many purposes and in diving is often taught as the formative equalising technique for many new drivers.

When performed correctly and in a relaxed manner it remains very effective for a lot of divers but if performed in a forceful manner can cause a rupture to the membrane of the round window which can cause vertigo, tinnitus and even deafness.

Learn more about different equalisation techniques on your PADI Divemaster. Book Now and Ignite Your Life today!

Grab your PADI Instructor Manual and head to Paperwork And Administrative Procedures. This section is alphabetised so the Waivers heading will be towards the end.

As you can see, they're issued to the individual and valid for 12 months after issuance.