The Carotid-Sinus is located at the origin of the Carotid Artery and consists of nerve involved in baroregulation, pressure regulation in sync with the body's external environment.

Physical triggering of the reflex can result in a loss of consciousness in a diver which could be potentially lethal while at depth. Alway fit exposure protection correctly.

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Although sound travels through water at approximately 4 times it travels through air because of it's increased density, temperature and pressure are also factors. This is how whales and porpoises are so proficient in communicating over large distances underwater and why the use of seismic airgun blasting is such a threat to all marine life. 

Instructor Moana is conducting the PADI Advanced Open Water and Open Water Diver course concurrently using multiple level teaching techniques and the help of a certified assistant, PADI Divemaster, Donny.

They meet their AOW students in the morning at the beach in preparation for their Underwater Navigation Adventure Dive after completing all knowledge development sections the previous evening.

Moana gives the briefing for the shore dive with their Donny, explaining that he will be leading the dive while she waits at the beach.

After completing the briefing for the performance requirements, dive parameters and how to think like a diver they allow Donny to lead their students on the Underwater Navigator dive to a maximum depth of 10 metres.

Moana waits at the beach waiting for their return with a full set of scuba equipment, ready to enter the water f required.

During this period Moana’s Open Water Students begin to arrive for their session which is due to begin once the Underwater Navigation Adventure Dive is completed.

Moana chats to them while they wait but keeps her eyes on the water at all times and excuses herself once she seems Donny lead the group to the surface.

She heads over to the group and talks to them about their dive and asks how it, their gas consumption and asks to see the Data Carrier to see their kick cycles and timed swim details.

She asks Donny for some feedback from the dive and he mentions that one of the student’s buoyancy may need some fine-tuning before the next Adventure Dive which happens to be the Dep Dive scheduled for the following morning.

Moana thanks him and then returns to her Open Water Diver students to brief and prepare for their first open water dive happening from the same location.

Is Moana within standards with the conduct for the Underwater Navigation Adventure Dive? Must she do anything else prior to leading the group for their Deep Diver Adventure Diver the following morning?

“Moana’s conduct for the Underwater Navigator dive is within standards and well executed. She followed all guideline for Indirect Supervision which the dive may be conducted under as long as it is shallower than 18 metres.

She also covered the Thinking Like A Diver briefing with the group before their dive and checked the use of the Data Carrier post dive.

Her debriefing with Donny is also important as it gives her essential information prior to the Deep Diver Adventure Dive which she must directly supervise.

Because Moana has no previous diving experience with her Advanced Open Water students she must assess the diver’s readiness prior to the Deep Dive happening the following morning. With Donny’s feedback about one of the student’s potential buoyancy issues, this must be part of that assessment too. “

Gaz Lyden.

Although general standards pertaining to PADI Specialty Programs can be found in the Key Standards table in your PADI Instructor Manual, more details can be found in the individual Specialty Instructor outlines. 

Want to expand your horizons to become a PADI Specialty Instructor? Email me at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and Ignite Your Life today!

Stonefish stings can be extremely painful and in some cases lethal. The application of heat and anti-venom are the most effective first aid steps and hot water, no hotter than 45 degrees Celcius applied to the affected area will destroy the Stonefish venom although it may cause additional discomfort to the patient.